By Stephen Toulmin, Richard Rieke, Allan Janik
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Reasoning
Why didn't the psychological establishment challenge Burt's research [which argued that heredity was by far the most important factor in deter mining intelligence and was extremely influential until the evidence was shown to have been "rigged"] , which was full of inconsistencies? " In short, they were afraid of him. But there was another reason, Kamin says. " It is well to remember that this applies to parapsychologists as well as those who criticize them. Fate magazine 1 6. Unless the government screws things up-and that's always a possibility the next twenty years will be as revolutionary as any period ever.
Fn . one may draw such "So. C " F, . F2 . · · · . Fn " ; a conclusion as C " ; FIGURE 5-1 The question is this: Within the varied contexts of different prises, what kinds of general statements may be appealed to as "rational authority" needed to connect any specific set of grounds, respondingly specific claim or conclusion, C? Once our assertor, A, human enter providing the G, to the cor has presented 50 FIRST LEVEL OF ANALYSIS: THE SOUNDNESS OF ARGUMENTS his particular set of grounds, G, what else must he produce in response to Q's critical questioning if he is to show that his conclusion, C, is warrantetf!
For once an argument is under way, it is a kind of cheating for us to go back and start questioning facts that were already stipulated before the argument began, without admitting what we are doing. If we begin to suspect halfway through an argument that our original starting point (or "common ground") was not as secure as we at first thought, we can go back to challenge it only by chang ing the subject, thereby initiating a new and different argument. The necessity for this procedure is connected with the function of reasoning as a means of establishing truth.
An Introduction to Reasoning by Stephen Toulmin, Richard Rieke, Allan Janik